Here you will find Extra Questions for CBSE Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe. Students are suggested to go through each and every question to score better marks in their exam.
Extra Questions for The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Very Short Answer Type Questions (VSA)
Q1. What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe?
Ans. The major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to the French Revolution in Europe was the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
Q2. What did the French revolutionaries aim for?
Ans. The French revolutionaries aimed for:
(i) Creating a sense of collective responsibility.
(ii) Establishing republic.
(iii) Equal rights for all.
Q3. What was the significance of the treaty of Constantinople in Greek history?
Ans. The treaty of Constantinople recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Q4. Name the group of countries that collectively defeated Napoleon.
Ans. Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria.
Q5. What did the conservatives want?
Ans. The conservatives wanted to preserve the monarchy and the church.
Q6. What does the term ‘absolutist’ refer to?
Ans. The term ‘absolutist’ refers to the following points:
(i) A government or a system of rule that has no restraints on power exercised.
(ii) A form of monarchical government that was centralised.
(iii) A form of government that is repressive.
Q7. What is the national anthem of Britain?
Ans. The national anthem of Britain is God Save Our Noble King.
Q8. What was Zollverein?
Ans. Zollverein was customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German sates.
Q9. What do you know about young Italy?
Ans. Young Italy was a secret society, formed by Giuseppe Mazzini to establish a unitary Italian Republic.
Q10. What did the German sword stand for?
Ans. The German sword for readiness to fight.
Q11. Name the countries which participated in the Vienna congress of 1815.
Ans. Britain, France and Russia.
Q12. What did the symbol of olive branch around the sword mean?
Ans. The symbol of olive branch around the sword meant willingness to make peace.
Q13. Who was described as the ‘most dangerous enemy to our social order’ and by whom?
Ans. Mazzini was described as the ‘most dangerous enemy to our social order’ by Metternich.
Q14. Who hosted the congress of Vienna?
Ans. Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich hosted the congress of Vienna.
Q15. Why were female allegories invented by the French artists?
Ans. Female allegories were invented by the French artists in the 19th Century to represent the nation.
Q16. Who was Johann Gottfried Herder? What did he claim?
Ans. Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher. He claimed that true German culture was to be discovered through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
Q17. Who was Ottoman Bismarck?
Ans. Ottoman Bismarck was the true architect of Germany who played an important role in the unification of the country. He is known for his policy of ‘Blood and Iron’.
Q18. What is a nation state?
Ans. Nation state is the one in which the majority of the citizens come together to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
Q19. Name the three revolutionaries of Italy who led the unification of the country.
Ans. Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo de Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi.
Q20. What does a blind folded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales, symbolise?
Ans. It is a symbolism of justice.
Q21. What did the ideas of La patrie and Le citoyen signify in the French Revolution?
Ans. These ideas symbolised ‘fatherland’ and ‘the citizens’ respectively.
Q22. What was the main function of the Prussian Zollverein?
Ans. Its main function was to abolish tariff barriers.
Q23. Who was proclaimed the German Emperor after its unification?
Ans. The Prussian King William I was proclaimed the German Emperor after its unification.
Q24. What do you know about the Act of Union, 1707?
Ans. It was signed between England and Scotland as a result of which the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ came into being. Now, England could impose its influence Scotland.
Short Answer Type Questions (SA)
Q1. Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
Ans. (i) When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle-classes began setting up Jacobin clubs.
(ii) Their activities and compaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s.
(iii) With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Q2. What role did Giuseppe Garibaldi play in the unification of Italy?
Ans. (i) Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82) was a famous Italian freedom fighter. He managed a large number of volunteers apart from regular troops.
(ii) In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.
(iii) He supported Victor Emmanuel II in his efforts to unify the Italian states and in 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
Q3. The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. Explain.
Ans. (i) The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(ii) In most countries, there were more job seekers than employment. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(iii) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England, where industrialisation was more advanced than on the continent.
(iv) In these regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(v) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country
Q4. Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order. How?
Ans. (i) Monarchs now began to realise that the cycles of revolution and repression would only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.
(ii) Therefore, in the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
(iii) Thus, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia.
(iv) The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.
Q5. Briefly write a note on the process of German unification.
Ans. Germany was divided in many states. In 1848 , the German confederation and Prussia tried organising themselves into a German state. Prussia took on the leadership. Its chief minister Otto Von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars: Danish War in 1864, Austro-Prussian War in 1866 and Franco-Prussian War in 1870-71 were fought which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. For unification, Bismarck adopted ‘Blood and Iron’ policy and finally, it took place in 1871. The Prussian king, William I became the German Emperor.
Q6. What were the Provisions of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815? Or Describe in brief any four features of the Vienna Treaty of 1815.
Ans. The Provisions of Treaty of Vienna of 1815 include:
(i) The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
(ii) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(iii) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
(iv) Belgium was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
(v) Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
(vi) In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
(vii) Thus, monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon were restored and a new conservative order was created in Europe.
Q7. In the areas conquered in Europe by Napoleon, explain the reactions of the local population to the French rule.
Ans. Regarding the areas conquered in Europe by Napoleon the reactions of the people were mixed.
(i) Initially in many places like Holland and Switzerland as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Milan, Warsaw etc, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty.
(ii) But the initial enthusiasm soon turned to hostility as it became clear to the people that the new administrative arrangement did not go hand in hand with the political freedom.
(iii) Increased taxation, censorship, forced consumption into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe. All seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
Q8. Enumerate any three features of the conservative regimes set up in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815?
Ans. (i) The conservatives emphasised the importance of tradition’s customs and established institutions like the monarchy, the church, the social hierarchies, property and the family.
(ii) The power of the Bourbon dynasty was restored.
(iii) Steps were taken to prevent French expansion and creation of new states.
(iv) Autocratic regimes came into power. Descent of any type from any group was not tolerated. The ideas associated with French Revolution were censored.
Q9. Who were the Grimm Brothers and how did they contribute to the rise of nationalism in Europe? Or How did the Grimm Brothers contribute to the Nation building of Germany?
Ans. (i) The Grimm Brothers-Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm-extensively contributed to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
(ii) They collected several folk tales that expressed pure and authentic German spirit.
(iii) They became quite popular among the masses. Both the brothers also became active in liberal politics, especially the movement for freedom of the press.
(iv) They were against French domination and considered it as a threat to German culture and tried to uproot it through their sincere efforts.
(v) They considered their projects of collecting folktales as part of the wider effort to oppose French domination and create a German national identity.
Q10. The Habsburg Empire was a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. Elucidate this statement.
Ans. (i) The Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary included the Alpine regions-the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland-as well as Bohemia, where the aristocracy was pre-dominantly German-speaking.
(ii) The Empire also included the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
(iii) In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish.
Besides these dominant groups, there also lived within the boundaries of the empire, a mass of subject peasant peoples-Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola, Croats to the south and Roumans to the east in Transylvania.